The Giza Power Plant:
Technologies of Ancient Egypt
by Chris Dunn
A Book Review
NEW FOR 2010!
Part 1 - The Mysteries
Part 2 - The Solution
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Front cover of The Great Pyramid Secret: Egypt's Amazing Lost Mystery Science Returns
Some Specific Reasons Why Chris Dunn Is Dead Wrong
Chris Dunn and Pseudo-Science
More Commentary and Pyramid Book/Film Reviews by Morris
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Some Specific Reasons Why
Dunn Is Dead Wrong
By Margaret Morris
The review located below is identical, except
for the endnotes, [1] and [2], to the review that was
submitted to* on 12/12/2000.

Dunn assumes that geopolymers, if used at all, were only poured into molds. Wrong! Unhardened rock-concrete can be worked like clay on a potter's wheel. Objects can be created by packing together individual quantities of uncured rock-concrete, skillfully shaped and finished with simple tools before ultimate hardening. A finish can be applied with one or more rock-concrete coatings. These techniques are used separately or in combination to construct an object. This flexible system eliminated quarrying, shaping, lifting and setting natural rock blocks and explains the heretofore unresolved features of the Great Pyramid and associated monuments and artifacts. Why didn't Dunn discuss this?

Revealing a rock-concrete object's construction method may require a subsurface examination. Distinguishing between natural rock and geopolymeric rock-concrete will normally require chemical analysis and microscopy, the geopolymer cement requiring a scanning electron microscope. Dunn ignores these facts.

Modern quarries exhibit cuts made by power saws. If the pyramid blocks were machined, the pyramid era quarries should exhibit similar marks. But they bear only the crude marks of stone picks (Arnold, D., "Building In Egypt"), a fact consistent with a disaggregation process for geopolymerization.[1] Dunn ignores this, too.

The Great Pyramid's limestone blocks are geopolymeric rock-concrete made at ambient temperatures with the Giza quarry's high-clay-content limestone, initially disaggregated because its clay was released by water that flooded the quarries. It's been demonstrated! Granite was otherwise disaggregated.

Rejecting the pyramids as funerary monuments, Dunn asks why robbers would steal "corpses" (mummies), failing to acknowledge that royal mummy wrappings have contained numerous precious amulets.

Egyptologists understand that the Great Pyramid, containing a sarcophagus and surrounded by royal tombs in the Necropolis ("City of the Dead"), represents the mythological primeval mountain. This fundamental religious concept, which Egypt shared with other nations, survived in architecture (pyramids, ziggurats, and temples) for several thousand years. Dunn ignores this concept. To disprove that the Great Pyramid is a primeval mountain funerary monument, Dunn must convincingly disprove the Great Pyramid's relationship to this concept. He does not.

Dunn speculates that a cataclysm caused machine tools to vanish. But what cataclysm lasted over 6000 years, during which time artifacts of the type Dunn claims were machined, were fashioned? Diorite vessels date to Neolithic times (c. 7000 B.C.). Diorite continued to be fashioned until at least the 25th Dynasty (712-657 B.C.). This spans over 6000 years. The 18th (1550-1307 B.C.) and 19th (1307-1196 B.C.) Dynasties produced truly impressive monolithic colossi of granite or quartzite weighing up to over 1000-tons each. How could machine tools and all associated high technology, used for over 6000 years, disappear while primitive tools and low technology objects survived?

Dunn asserts that an iron scrap[2] found inside the Great Pyramid proves contemporaneous iron production. Egyptologists don't agree, citing extensive 19th Dynasty pyramid repairs and the absence of convincing evidence of iron smelting. No sealed Old Kingdom (2575-2134 B.C.) tomb has yielded wrought iron. Evidence for even one smelting facility dated to the Old or Middle Kingdom is lacking. If original, said iron could be a foreign gift placed in the masonry, like amulets inserted into mummy wrappings.

For his power plant to work, Dunn claims iron and gold lined the entire lengths of the narrow northern and southern shafts of the King's Chamber. Dunn presents no evidence for such a lining, save for the implication of the above-mentioned unconvincing iron scrap. However, he partially inspected the northern shaft and mentions no sign of metal or its removal.

Dunn does not explain how energy was transferred to power tools. He incongruously mixes low and high technology, claiming that a wood and bronze "grapnel hook" is part of a critical fluid control switch--as if its curved edge is a proper contact surface. Dunn offers no proof that it floats or its weight distribution allows the required horizontal flotation. It is unbelievable that Dunn's advanced technology coexisted with such "gerry-rigging." Bronze appeared in Egypt hundreds of years after the Great Pyramid's construction. This hook, resembling nothing known from the Pyramid Age, is probably nothing but a "grapnel hook" placed in the Great Pyramid long after its construction.

Dunn asserts that a crack in the Queen's Chamber metered fluids! A crack is subject to erosion, and dimensional instability caused by settlement, earthquakes and etc. Why would engineers using ultrasound, high-speed motorized machinery and more impressive technology substitute "Flintstones" technology for a drilled orifice or truly sophisticated metering device?

Features Dunn claims support a power plant actually support geopolymerization best. For instance, Dunn says that the power plant's chemicals created salt on certain limestone walls because of a reaction with the limestone. But geopolymerized stone can release such salt (see "The Egyptian Pyramid Mystery Is Solved!", Morris, M.). Salt appears on walls of other pyramids. For instance, Petrie reported "a good deal of crystallized salt" inside Khafra's granite (not limestone!) sarcophagus. Dunn ignores these facts that oppose his theory. This phenomena evidences geopolymerization, not Gizapower!

If the strange description of the granite matrix in the King's Chamber (page 152) that Dunn presents is accurate, it suggests artificial stone, as do Dunn's remarks about Petrie's granite core #7 from Khafra's Valley Temple, "The confounding fact that the spiral groove cut deeper through the quartz than through the softer feldspar. In conventional machining the reverse would be the case."

Dunn legitimately asserts that certain features cannot be explained by utilizing ancient Egyptian tools. His evidence inadvertently helps prove that geopolymerization is the answer to otherwise puzzling monuments and artifacts.


The image above is an ancient Egyptian drawing in red and black ink on a limestone ostrakon thought to be from Deir el-Medineh and dating to about 1250 B.C. It is in the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge and published in Cyril Aldred's book "The Egyptians," Thames and Hudson, NY (revised edition 1984), page 197.

Aldred's caption reads, "A burly, bald, ill-shaven quarryman, his mouth open with the effort, hammers away with his chisel and mallet at the Theban hillside. This study, drawn upon a flake of the discarded limestone with a few rapid strokes, gives a vivid impression of a stone-mason in action, and is a testimony to the humorous observation of the workmate who sketched him."

The mason could be disaggregating the limestone, or he could be extracting a larger chunk of stone. He could be finishing a stone or making a rock drawing. In any case, he is not using a machine tool, although this drawing dates to the period when artifacts of the type Dunn cites as examples were still being created.


Colonel Howard Vyse found the iron near the outside opening of the southern shaft in the King's Chamber in 1837. It is flat and is reported to measure about 12" by 4" and 1/8" thick. The sheet of iron exhibits traces of gold, which suggests that it was considered a precious metal. Similarly, the pieces of iron found in the tomb of the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh Tutankhamun (who reigned at the beginning of Egypt's Iron Age, about 1000 years after the construction of the Great Pyramid) were set in gold (see Dieter Arnold "Building In Egypt"). Because the iron exhibits gold, it was not likely used as a tool. It was more likely hidden in the masonry.

An account by Murtada ibn al Khafif, an Arabian writer thought to have lived in the 13th century, collected stories for his "A History of the Marvelous Things in Egypt." One account tells of a troop of 20 men who entered the Great Pyramid carrying provisions for two months. They had with them iron plates and bars. It has been suggested that they were prying at masonry while looking for hidden entrances, and that they wound up hiding a scrap from their iron plates in the masonry itself during their lengthy stay in the interior of the Great Pyramid.

Because the piece of iron was reported to have been situated in a joint in the masonry in such a way that it could not have been just casually dropped in, Vyse believed it had to have been left during construction. However, it may have been left during the extensive repairs of the pyramids by the 19th Dynasty administration of Ramses II (for the extensive repairs see Kitchen, K.A. "Pharaoh Triumphant: the life and times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt, " (edition: 3rd corr. Impression), Warminster, Wiltshire, England (1985 - 1982), 272 p.). Because of the fall of the Old Kingdom and the subsequent Hyksos takeover of Egypt, the pyramids had undergone a millennium of neglect and pillaging when they were finally repaired by Ramses II's administration.

Chris Dunn and

To write "The Giza Power Plant," Chris Dunn relied on pseudo-science sources and a few scholarly and technical sources. With the exception of Erich von Daniken, Chris Dunn's writings show that he is unable to distinguish the legitimate sources from the pseudo-science and pseudo-history sources he uses.

For instance, Dunn understands that scholars are not going to consider his work if he takes seriously the so called readings of Edgar Cayce. Dunn writes (page 239), "Some readers may think Cayce's psychic speculations have no place in a serious book on Egypt." Nevertheless, Dunn does reinterpret Cayce's words to support his power plant idea (pages 239-242). Dunn writes that he feels "justified" (page 239) delving into the Cayce material because the Cayce foundation funded research in Egypt.

In other words, the Cayce foundation (Association for Research and Enlightenment) funded research to attempt to prove that Cayce was correct in claiming that the Great Pyramid was built 12,500 years ago! The project analyzed mortar from the Great Pyramid and involved archaeologist Mark Lehner, who championed Edgar Cayce while working on the Giza Plateau for most of his career.

Thus, Chris Dunn reasons that he should not be criticized for using Cayce's utterances about Atlantis power plants as supportive material! Dunn concludes his four pages on Cayce's utterances about Atlantean power plants with the following statement, "All the evidence clearly shows that the ancient Egyptians were technologically advanced..." (page 242).

For those who are unfamiliar with the Cayce material, here is some brief background information. Cayce claimed that the Great Pyramid was built by followers of a priest named Ra Ta some 12,500 years ago, at a time when humans were grotesque hybrid beings with horse heads and human bodies. According to Cayce, some people were sphinxes and most people had tails. Some had claws instead of hands, and native Egyptians had feathered legs! According to Cayce, when the people were cleansed in the temple, their tails fell away and their claws changed to hands.

It appears that Cayce took the anthropomorphic god forms of ancient Egypt literally. Click here for a summary consisting of excerpts from Mark Lehner's book "The Egyptian Heritage: Based on the Edgar Cayce Readings" (1974). Lehner writes in his book that he hopes to prove that Cayce's utterances are "rooted in truth," and Lehner spent much of his career as an agent of the Cayce foundation.

Another example of Chris Dunn and his pseudo-scientific approach: Dunn writes (pg. 267) "Hancock, Bauval, and West are major proponents of the theory that the Sphinx was constructed during the age of Leo, over 10,000 years ago. West and geologist Robert Schoch claim that the weathering of the Sphinx and of the surrounding limestone wall is the result of repeated heavy rainfall, which has not occurred in Egypt for over 10,000 years." Click here for a critique by astronomer Dr. Edwin Krupp, Director of the Griffith Observatory, of the claim that the Sphinx was constructed during the age of Leo. Click here for a report by former Director of the Egyptian Geological Survey Richard Hume, showing that even in modern times Egypt is subject to periodic highly damaging rains.

Chris Dunn's "The Giza Power Plant" is endorsed (see the endorsement on the front cover) by Richard Noone, the author of "5/5/2000 Ice: The Ultimate Disaster," Noone used pyramidology to assert that the polar caps would flip on May 5th of the year 2000. A review of the book appears at the Griffith Observatory.

In short, Dunn's book is not written for the scientist or scholar. If Dunn believes otherwise, he has much to learn about scientific methodology.

Given Chris Dunn's pseudo-scientific approach to the Great Pyramid, it is not surprising that he is on the Advisory Board of Dr. John DeSalvo's Great Pyramid of Giza Research Association at At DeSalvo's website "the Great Pyramid is designed to represent the atom" and "the Giza Necropolis is the representation of Hydrogen in stone."

A 5 star review of Chris Dunn's "The Giza Power Plant: Technologies of Ancient Egypt" is posted in the* customer review section. The review is by John DeSalvo, Ph.D., Director of the above-mentioned Great Pyramid of Giza Research Association at

John DeSalvo writes: "Since my background is in physics and biophysics, I have always favored a scientific explanation with facts that can be substantiated. Mr. Dunn's new book is a very scientific approach to discovering the purpose of the Great Pyramid of Giza. His theory is based on sound scientific principles which include acoustics, vibrations, piezoelectric effect, and others."

The review by Margaret Morris above shows that Dunn's approach defies scientific methodology and that his line of reasoning, based in futuristic science and science fantasy, tears the Great Pyramid from its cultural context. Ph.D. level researchers are supposed to be trained to recognize leaps of faith, illogical premises, unsubstantiated evidence and other forms of poor methodology. But dazzled by Dunn's "acoustics, vibrations, piezoelectric effect, and others," Dr. John DeSalvo continues: "He has synthesized a scientific theory that is consistent with the history of ancient Egypt."

The review by Margaret Morris above shows that Chris Dunn's theory defies the history of ancient Egypt, and tortures logic and common sense. Here is the complete review by Chris Dunn's affiliate John DeSalvo, Ph.D.:

"One of the best books on the Great Pyramid published, November 20, 2000 Reviewer: John DeSalvo, Ph.D. from Minnesota As Director of the Great Pyramid of Giza Research Association (, I am familiar with most of the major theories regarding the Great Pyramid. Since my background is in physics and biophysics, I have always favored a scientific explanation with facts that can be substantiated. Mr. Dunn's new book is a very scientific approach to discovering the purpose of the Great Pyramid of Giza. His theory is based on sound scientific principles which include acoustics, vibrations, piezoelectric effect, and others. He has synthesized a scientific theory that is consistent with the history of ancient Egypt. Of all the new theories published to date, I find his theory to be one of the most promising. Further work needs to be done but Mr. Dunn has set the stage for a new approach to the Great Pyramid. Also the first part of his book is a real encyclopedia of the history and discoveries of the Great Pyramid.

"This book is a must for any serious student of the Great Pyramid and also for any layman interested in it. It makes fascinating and enjoyable reading.

"If I was going to recommend three books to someone regarding the Great Pyramid, Mr. Dunn's book would be one of the three that I would choose."

More Commentary and
Pyramid Book/Film
Reviews by Morris
Giza Power Plant Meltdown!
Morris challenges Dunn to a debate
Excerpt 7 of Morris's "The Egyptian Pyramid Mystery Is Solved!"
Morris's review of Christopher Dunn's "The Giza Power Plant: Technologies of Ancient Egypt" posted at and titled, "Some Specific Reasons Why Chris Dunn Is Dead Wrong"
Morris's review of the PBS-NOVA video, "This Old Pyramid", posted at and titled, "This Old Pyramid Nonsense"
Morris's review of Mark Lehner's "The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysteries" posted at and titled, "The Incomplete Pyramids: Distorting the Ancient Mysteries"
Morris's review of Dieter Arnold's "Building In Egypt: Pharaonic Stone Masonry" posted at and titled, "Major Shortcomings"
Please Note

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