Giza Power Plant:
|Technologies of Ancient Egypt
|Some Specific Reasons Why
|Dunn Is Dead Wrong
| The review
located below is identical, except
|for the endnotes,  and
, to the
review that was
to Amazon.com* on 12/12/2000.
Dunn assumes that geopolymers, if used at all, were
only poured into molds. Wrong! Unhardened rock-concrete can be worked like clay
on a potter's wheel. Objects can be created by packing together individual
quantities of uncured rock-concrete, skillfully shaped and finished with simple
tools before ultimate hardening. A finish can be applied with one or more
rock-concrete coatings. These techniques are used separately or in combination
to construct an object. This flexible system eliminated quarrying, shaping,
lifting and setting natural rock blocks and explains the heretofore unresolved
features of the Great Pyramid and associated monuments and artifacts. Why
didn't Dunn discuss this?
Revealing a rock-concrete object's construction method
may require a subsurface examination. Distinguishing between natural rock and
geopolymeric rock-concrete will normally require chemical analysis and
microscopy, the geopolymer cement requiring a scanning electron microscope.
Dunn ignores these facts.
Modern quarries exhibit cuts made by power saws. If the
pyramid blocks were machined, the pyramid era quarries should exhibit similar
marks. But they bear only the crude marks of stone picks (Arnold, D., "Building
In Egypt"), a fact consistent with a disaggregation process for
geopolymerization. Dunn ignores
The Great Pyramid's limestone blocks are geopolymeric
rock-concrete made at ambient temperatures with the Giza quarry's
high-clay-content limestone, initially disaggregated because its clay was
released by water that flooded the quarries. It's been demonstrated! Granite
was otherwise disaggregated.
Rejecting the pyramids as funerary monuments, Dunn asks
why robbers would steal "corpses" (mummies), failing to acknowledge that royal
mummy wrappings have contained numerous precious amulets.
Egyptologists understand that the Great Pyramid,
containing a sarcophagus and surrounded by royal tombs in the Necropolis ("City
of the Dead"), represents the mythological primeval mountain. This fundamental
religious concept, which Egypt shared with other nations, survived in
architecture (pyramids, ziggurats, and temples) for several thousand years.
Dunn ignores this concept. To disprove that the Great Pyramid is a primeval
mountain funerary monument, Dunn must convincingly disprove the Great Pyramid's
relationship to this concept. He does not.
Dunn speculates that a cataclysm caused machine tools
to vanish. But what cataclysm lasted over 6000 years, during which time
artifacts of the type Dunn claims were machined, were fashioned? Diorite
vessels date to Neolithic times (c. 7000 B.C.). Diorite continued to be
fashioned until at least the 25th Dynasty (712-657 B.C.). This spans over 6000
years. The 18th (1550-1307 B.C.) and 19th (1307-1196 B.C.) Dynasties produced
truly impressive monolithic colossi of granite or quartzite weighing up to over
1000-tons each. How could machine tools and all associated high technology,
used for over 6000 years, disappear while primitive tools and low technology
Dunn asserts that an iron scrap found inside the
Great Pyramid proves contemporaneous iron production. Egyptologists don't
agree, citing extensive 19th Dynasty pyramid repairs and the absence of
convincing evidence of iron smelting. No sealed Old Kingdom (2575-2134 B.C.)
tomb has yielded wrought iron. Evidence for even one smelting facility dated to
the Old or Middle Kingdom is lacking. If original, said iron could be a foreign
gift placed in the masonry, like amulets inserted into mummy
For his power plant to work, Dunn claims iron and gold
lined the entire lengths of the narrow northern and southern shafts of the
King's Chamber. Dunn presents no evidence for such a lining, save for the
implication of the above-mentioned unconvincing iron scrap. However, he
partially inspected the northern shaft and mentions no sign of metal or its
Dunn does not explain how energy was transferred to
power tools. He incongruously mixes low and high technology, claiming that a
wood and bronze "grapnel hook" is part of a critical fluid control switch--as
if its curved edge is a proper contact surface. Dunn offers no proof that it
floats or its weight distribution allows the required horizontal flotation. It
is unbelievable that Dunn's advanced technology coexisted with such
"gerry-rigging." Bronze appeared in Egypt hundreds of years after the Great
Pyramid's construction. This hook, resembling nothing known from the Pyramid
Age, is probably nothing but a "grapnel hook" placed in the Great Pyramid long
after its construction.
Dunn asserts that a crack in the Queen's Chamber
metered fluids! A crack is subject to erosion, and dimensional instability
caused by settlement, earthquakes and etc. Why would engineers using
ultrasound, high-speed motorized machinery and more impressive technology
substitute "Flintstones" technology for a drilled orifice or truly
sophisticated metering device?
Features Dunn claims support a power plant actually
support geopolymerization best. For instance, Dunn says that the power plant's
chemicals created salt on certain limestone walls because of a reaction with
the limestone. But geopolymerized stone can release such salt (see "The
Egyptian Pyramid Mystery Is Solved!", Morris, M.). Salt appears on walls of
other pyramids. For instance, Petrie reported "a good deal of crystallized
salt" inside Khafra's granite (not limestone!) sarcophagus. Dunn ignores these
facts that oppose his theory. This phenomena evidences geopolymerization, not
If the strange description of the granite matrix in the
King's Chamber (page 152) that Dunn presents is accurate, it suggests
artificial stone, as do Dunn's remarks about Petrie's granite core #7 from
Khafra's Valley Temple, "The confounding fact that the spiral groove cut deeper
through the quartz than through the softer feldspar. In conventional machining
the reverse would be the case."
Dunn legitimately asserts that certain features cannot
be explained by utilizing ancient Egyptian tools. His evidence inadvertently
helps prove that geopolymerization is the answer to otherwise puzzling
monuments and artifacts.
The image above is an ancient Egyptian drawing in red
and black ink on a limestone ostrakon thought to be from Deir el-Medineh and
dating to about 1250 B.C. It is in the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge and
published in Cyril Aldred's book "The Egyptians," Thames and Hudson, NY
(revised edition 1984), page 197.
Aldred's caption reads, "A burly, bald, ill-shaven
quarryman, his mouth open with the effort, hammers away with his chisel and
mallet at the Theban hillside. This study, drawn upon a flake of the discarded
limestone with a few rapid strokes, gives a vivid impression of a stone-mason
in action, and is a testimony to the humorous observation of the workmate who
The mason could be disaggregating the limestone, or he
could be extracting a larger chunk of stone. He could be finishing a stone or
making a rock drawing. In any case, he is not using a machine tool, although
this drawing dates to the period when artifacts of the type Dunn cites as
examples were still being created.
Colonel Howard Vyse found the iron near the outside
opening of the southern shaft in the King's Chamber in 1837. It is flat and is
reported to measure about 12" by 4" and 1/8" thick. The sheet of iron exhibits
traces of gold, which suggests that it was considered a precious metal.
Similarly, the pieces of iron found in the tomb of the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh
Tutankhamun (who reigned at the beginning of Egypt's Iron Age, about 1000 years
after the construction of the Great Pyramid) were set in gold (see Dieter
Arnold "Building In Egypt"). Because the iron exhibits gold, it was not likely
used as a tool. It was more likely hidden in the masonry.
An account by Murtada ibn al Khafif, an Arabian writer
thought to have lived in the 13th century, collected stories for his "A History
of the Marvelous Things in Egypt." One account tells of a troop of 20 men who
entered the Great Pyramid carrying provisions for two months. They had with
them iron plates and bars. It has been suggested that they were prying at
masonry while looking for hidden entrances, and that they wound up hiding a
scrap from their iron plates in the masonry itself during their lengthy stay in
the interior of the Great Pyramid.
Because the piece of iron was reported to have been
situated in a joint in the masonry in such a way that it could not have been
just casually dropped in, Vyse believed it had to have been left during
construction. However, it may have been left during the extensive repairs of
the pyramids by the 19th Dynasty administration of Ramses II (for the extensive
repairs see Kitchen, K.A. "Pharaoh Triumphant: the life and times of Ramesses
II, King of Egypt, " (edition: 3rd corr. Impression), Warminster, Wiltshire,
England (1985 - 1982), 272 p.). Because of the fall of the Old Kingdom and the
subsequent Hyksos takeover of Egypt, the pyramids had undergone a millennium of
neglect and pillaging when they were finally repaired by Ramses II's
|Chris Dunn and
To write "The Giza Power Plant," Chris Dunn relied on
pseudo-science sources and a few scholarly and technical sources. With the
exception of Erich von Daniken, Chris Dunn's writings show that he is unable to
distinguish the legitimate sources from the pseudo-science and pseudo-history
sources he uses.
For instance, Dunn understands that scholars are not
going to consider his work if he takes seriously the so called readings of
Edgar Cayce. Dunn writes (page 239), "Some readers may think Cayce's psychic
speculations have no place in a serious book on Egypt." Nevertheless, Dunn does
reinterpret Cayce's words to support his power plant idea (pages 239-242). Dunn
writes that he feels "justified" (page 239) delving into the Cayce material
because the Cayce foundation funded research in Egypt.
In other words, the Cayce foundation (Association for Research and Enlightenment) funded research to attempt to prove that Cayce was correct in claiming that the Great Pyramid was built 12,500 years ago! The project analyzed mortar from the Great Pyramid and involved archaeologist Mark Lehner, who championed Edgar Cayce while working on the Giza Plateau for most of his career.
Thus, Chris Dunn reasons that he should not be criticized for using Cayce's utterances about Atlantis power plants as supportive material! Dunn concludes his four pages on Cayce's utterances about Atlantean power plants with the following statement, "All the evidence clearly shows that the ancient Egyptians were technologically advanced..." (page 242).
For those who are unfamiliar with the Cayce material,
here is some brief background information. Cayce claimed that the Great Pyramid
was built by followers of a priest named Ra Ta some 12,500 years ago, at a time
when humans were grotesque hybrid beings with horse heads and human bodies.
According to Cayce, some people were sphinxes and most people had tails. Some
had claws instead of hands, and native Egyptians had feathered legs! According
to Cayce, when the people were cleansed in the temple, their tails fell away
and their claws changed to hands.
It appears that Cayce took the anthropomorphic god
forms of ancient Egypt literally.
here for a summary consisting of excerpts from Mark Lehner's book
"The Egyptian Heritage: Based on the Edgar Cayce Readings" (1974). Lehner
writes in his book that he hopes to prove that Cayce's utterances are "rooted
in truth," and Lehner spent much of his career as an agent of the Cayce
Another example of Chris Dunn and his pseudo-scientific
approach: Dunn writes (pg. 267) "Hancock, Bauval, and West are major proponents
of the theory that the Sphinx was constructed during the age of Leo, over
10,000 years ago. West and geologist Robert Schoch claim that the weathering of
the Sphinx and of the surrounding limestone wall is the result of repeated
heavy rainfall, which has not occurred in Egypt for over 10,000 years."
Click here for a critique by astronomer Dr. Edwin Krupp, Director of the Griffith Observatory, of the claim that the Sphinx was constructed during the age of Leo. Click here for a report by former Director of the Egyptian Geological Survey Richard Hume, showing that even in modern times Egypt is subject to periodic highly damaging rains.
Chris Dunn's "The Giza Power Plant" is endorsed (see
the endorsement on the front cover) by Richard Noone, the author of "5/5/2000
Ice: The Ultimate Disaster," Noone used pyramidology to assert that the polar
caps would flip on May 5th of the year 2000. A review of the book appears at
In short, Dunn's book is not written for the scientist
or scholar. If Dunn believes otherwise, he has much to learn about scientific
Given Chris Dunn's pseudo-scientific approach to the
Great Pyramid, it is not surprising that he is on the Advisory Board of Dr.
John DeSalvo's Great Pyramid of Giza Research Association at gizapyramid.com.
At DeSalvo's website "the Great Pyramid is designed to represent the atom" and
"the Giza Necropolis is the representation of Hydrogen in stone."
A 5 star review of Chris Dunn's "The Giza Power Plant:
Technologies of Ancient Egypt" is posted in the Amazon.com* customer
review section. The review is by John DeSalvo, Ph.D., Director of the
above-mentioned Great Pyramid of Giza Research Association at gizapyramid.com.
John DeSalvo writes: "Since my background is in physics and biophysics, I have always favored a scientific explanation with facts that can be substantiated. Mr. Dunn's new book is a very scientific approach to discovering the purpose of the Great Pyramid of Giza. His theory is based on sound scientific principles which include acoustics, vibrations, piezoelectric effect, and others."
The review by Margaret Morris above shows that Dunn's
approach defies scientific methodology and that his line of reasoning, based in
futuristic science and science fantasy, tears the Great Pyramid from its
cultural context. Ph.D. level researchers are supposed to be trained to
recognize leaps of faith, illogical premises, unsubstantiated evidence and
other forms of poor methodology. But dazzled by Dunn's "acoustics, vibrations,
piezoelectric effect, and others," Dr. John DeSalvo continues: "He has
synthesized a scientific theory that is consistent with the history of ancient
The review by Margaret Morris above shows that Chris Dunn's theory defies the history of ancient Egypt, and tortures logic and common sense. Here is the complete review by Chris Dunn's affiliate John DeSalvo, Ph.D.:
"One of the best books on the Great Pyramid published,
November 20, 2000 Reviewer: John DeSalvo, Ph.D. from Minnesota As Director of
the Great Pyramid of Giza Research Association (gizapyramid.com), I am familiar
with most of the major theories regarding the Great Pyramid. Since my
background is in physics and biophysics, I have always favored a scientific
explanation with facts that can be substantiated. Mr. Dunn's new book is a very
scientific approach to discovering the purpose of the Great Pyramid of Giza.
His theory is based on sound scientific principles which include acoustics,
vibrations, piezoelectric effect, and others. He has synthesized a scientific
theory that is consistent with the history of ancient Egypt. Of all the new
theories published to date, I find his theory to be one of the most promising.
Further work needs to be done but Mr. Dunn has set the stage for a new approach
to the Great Pyramid. Also the first part of his book is a real encyclopedia of
the history and discoveries of the Great Pyramid.
"This book is a must for any serious student of the
Great Pyramid and also for any layman interested in it. It makes fascinating
and enjoyable reading.
"If I was going to recommend three books to someone regarding the Great Pyramid, Mr. Dunn's book would be one of the three that I would choose."
The scientific and
Egyptological studies used to prepare this page are cited in The Egyptian Pyramid Mystery Is
This book is available
exclusively at Margaret Morris
Books.Com. Click on the ancient Egyptian barge below to navigate
to the home page of Margaret Morris
The reviews of Chris Dunn's "The Giza Power Plant"
posted on this page are the property of Amazon.com as of their posting dates.
All such reviews, including DeSalvo's review, are quoted here pursuant to the
rules of fair use.
|Copyright © 2000-2010 Margaret Morris Books
|The background for this page was created by Margaret Morris. Free use of this background on another web page requires a link to this page or to: