...Dunn has experience in advanced manufacturing methods, including laser processing and electrical discharge machining. In 1995, Dunn examined a number of Egyptian sarcophagi dating from the Old and New Kingdoms. His cursory examination left him stunned and unshakably convinced of the existence of advanced machining in ancient Egypt.
Arriving at Giza, Dunn set to work, but the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid was too crowded for him to examine Khufu's sarcophagus. Undaunted, he went to Khafra's nearby pyramid, which attracts less tourist traffic. Dunn was able to enter its granite sarcophagus. He had with him a flashlight and a parallel, a tool used to test the flatness of a surface. It is simply a piece of steel ground flat, measuring roughly a quarter of an inch thick and six inches long. Inside of Khafra's sarcophagus, Dunn was emotionally overcome when he measured the interior of the sarcophagus to be perfectly flat and perfectly smooth. Dunn moved his parallel in every conceivable position within the interior of the sarcophagus, sliding his tool along horizontally and vertically. Each time he shone his flashlight behind the parallel, no light came through the area between his parallel and the surface of the stone. No matter where he tested, Dunn was unable to detect any deviation whatsoever from a perfectly flat surface. He recognized that it would not be possible to perform this masonry work by hand. The task would be complex and difficult even with modern machinery.
Dunn was more wonderstruck by a sarcophagus in the Serapeum, located at Saqqara. The Serapeum is a remarkable subterranean tomb enlarged during the New Kingdom, by the administration of Pharaoh Ramses the Great. Its many large basalt and granite sarcophagi contained the funerary remains of Apis bulls, the male counterparts of the sacred Isis cows. These great stone boxes weigh at least 65 tons each. The added weight of their lids amounts to a total assembled weight of about 100 tons per sarcophagus. They each stand about 11 feet high, 13 feet long, and 7-1/2 feet wide. When French Egyptologist Auguste Mariette (1821-1881) discovered and excavated the Serapeum, he recorded 24 basalt and granite sarcophagi still in position. The heaviest weighed about 70 tons. Each sarcophagus sits in its own sunken rock-cut niche, and these niches form rows along the bedrock walls.
The surfaces of the sarcophagi that Dunn was able to examine are perfectly flat. Dunn was able to make a careful comparison between a sarcophagus and its lid. He found both to be perfectly flat. With its heavy lid in place, the air between the two stone surfaces was pushed out, producing a very effective seal. Dunn's mind staggered as he reckoned the technical difficulties of producing both a lid and a sarcophagus to fit in this ultra-precise way. He reckoned the task to be vastly more difficult than producing the flat surfaces of the sarcophagi.
Dunn examined many ancient Egyptian ruins and artifacts during his trip that are taken for granted by Egyptology these days. He found that they defy explanation.
After returning home, Dunn conferred with four different manufacturers in the U.S. that precision-cut granite. None possessed equipment capable of producing a comparable monolithic sarcophagus. They could not make a custom fitted lid with a comparably tight fit, either. The best the companies could offer was granite slabs bolted together to form a box.
Dunn interested some of his peers in the machining industry to contemplate the enigmas posed by Petrie's granite spiral-cut core sample number seven... After considerable pondering, Dunn and his peers concluded that highly advanced machining must have existed in ancient Egypt. Petrie's granite sample number seven mystified them, particularly the great speed at which the drill had to have penetrated the granite.
Donald Rahn, of Rahn Granite Surface Plate Company, in Dayton, Ohio, who works with diamond drills, offered some information. He advised Dunn that diamond drills rotating at 900 revolutions per minute penetrate granite at a rate of one inch in five minutes. With this information, Dunn calculated that the ancient Egyptian masons drilled Petrie's granite core sample number seven at a feed-rate that is 500 times greater!
After much contemplation, Dunn came up with an explanation for the enigmatic features of Petrie's granite core number seven. Knowing that Egyptologists frown upon the idea of advanced technology in ancient Egypt, Dunn hoped to gain supporting opinions from his peers. Dunn continually challenged them with aspects of the problem. Finally, one of them suggested the same method Dunn believes to be the only one that will produce the features of Petrie's artifact. The method they envisioned, ultrasonic machining, did not exist in Petrie's day. Only an ultrasonic tool-bit can tear away at granite fast enough. The ultrasonic tool-bit vibrates at 19,000 to 25,000 cycles per second, and its use satisfies this anomaly of Petrie's ample.
Myriads of artifacts dating back to the Archaic Period (c. 3000-2649 BC) have features more complex than Petrie's core number seven. Egyptologist W.B. Emery presents stunning pieces in his Archaic Egypt (1987 rev.). Among them is a leaf-shaped schist dish, which is harder than iron. It dates to the middle of the 1st Dynasty. Saw marks create the perfect detail. The artisan was able to cut rapidly into the stone to the desired depth without running his tool through the rock. In other words, the artisan used technology that allowed him complete control.
One of the problems is that equally enigmatic hard stone artifacts were made in Egypt from Pre-dynastic times (about 7000 B.C.) until well over a 1500 years after the Great Pyramid was built. That is, some date well before the 4th Dynasty date assigned to the Great Pyramid by Egyptology. How could the Great Pyramid have powered advanced tools to make these artifacts if the Great Pyramid did not yet exist?
Even if Dunn speculates that the Great Pyramid is an older monument dating from Pre-Dynastic times, such reckoning does not account for spectacular monuments built hundreds of miles from Giza during the New Kingdom (about 1000 years after the 4th Dynasty).
The Colossi of Memnon, for instance, were (until their repair in Roman times) monoliths each the height of a seven a story building. They are made of quartzite, the hardest stone ever used to make Egyptian monuments. They are located hundreds of miles south of the Great Pyramid and date to about a thousand years after the 4th Dynasty. Colossi weighing a thousand tons and more were built even later for Pharaoh Ramses the Great, and they are located many miles from Giza.
We see that although Chris Dunn makes a contribution to Egyptology by helping to identify problematic artifacts (as did earlier machinists who worked with Egyptology W.M.F. Petrie), Chris Dunn's introduction of power tools fails to solve the masonry and engineering enigmas. In order for Chris Dunn's idea to hold, the Giza power plant would have to function remotely for thousands of years!
Another problem is that Dunm cannot explain how all such advanced machinery could have disappeared with out a trace. All traces of machines (including physical remains, drawings and writings) would have to have disappeared from the archaeological record of thousands of years (from 7000 B.C. to the Late Period or later, when items of diorite were still being made).
Dunn's ideas produce more problems than they solve. The Egyptian Pyramid Mystery Is Solved! offers the real means of making the enigmatic stonework, both large and small, without the need for power tools.
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A Special Note to Students and Educators
Margaret Morris Challenges Chris Dunn to a Debate
About Margaret Morris